Finally, there is a growing evidence base on actual adaptation implementation. Much of this has emerged from the finance provided by the international climate finance funds (e.g. Global Environment Fund projects). As these have been implemented, they provide useful case study material, as well as information on adaptation costs available. In some cases, there is CBA of options as part of the application and appraisal process. These provide useful information on early adaptation costs, including implementation costs.
The Global Environment Fund has funded a number of projects, although many of these are focused on sustainable fisheries and aquaculture and ecosystem health in general. However, there are some targeted adaptation projects, i.e. where climate change is the main justification for the project, and in response, activities are focused on reducing climate risks. This distinction is important in adaptation finance tracking and reporting, i.e. in line with the OECD Development Assistance Committee Rio Markers (OECD Development Assistance Committee, 2016), where adaptation is the primary objective.
Many of these projects provide a source of additional empirical data on the costs of early no- and low-regret fisheries development activities, including conservation and ecosystem-based approaches. There are also a number of fisheries projects funded under the Adaptation Fund for a value of about USD 5 million to USD 10 million each over a period of four years. Examples include Building Adaptive Capacities of Small Inland Fishermen Community for Climate Resilience and Livelihood Security, Madhya Pradesh, India, and Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Change on Peru’s Coastal Marine Ecosystem and Fisheries, as well as several projects that cover coastal communities or islands (Adaptation Fund, 2019).
There is an approved Green Climate Fund project for Bangladesh that has a strong fisheries component (FP069: Enhancing Adaptive Capacities of Coastal Communities, Especially Women, to Cope with Climate Change Induced Salinity). This highlights how climate-induced salinities will adversely impact small-scale fishers, and in response it is addressing the barriers related to awareness and access to resilient livelihood practices, and promoting climate-resilient livelihoods, i.e. diversification, especially aquaculture, to fisheries-based groups. The proposal included an initial CBA for each of the livelihoods, reporting positive returns.
There have also been some fisheries components in the Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience. A programme in Jamaica (USD 4.8 million) strengthened the fisheries policy and regulatory framework (Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience Jamaica, undated). It included steps to make it climate-smart, investing in diversification of viable alternative livelihoods that enhance sustainable fisheries, and capacity building and awareness raising among the fishing and fish farming communities.
As well as these implemented projects, there are national-level initiatives, as part of the UNFCCC programme that are developing targeted climate adaptation plans.
The NAP process enables parties to identify, formulate and implement medium- and long-term adaptation needs, and strategies and programmes to address those needs. Fifteen NAPs had been submitted (as at December 2019 [UNFCCC, 2019a]. These do not have a strong focus on fisheries, although Saint Lucia’s National NAP 2018-2028 (Government of Saint Lucia, 2018) includes the Sectoral Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan for the Fisheries (Fisheries SASAP) 2018-2028.
Finally, the Paris Agreement asks each country to outline and communicate their post-2020 climate actions. Known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs), these set out the proposed efforts by each country to reduce national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. The current NDCs are focused on short-term needs-based assessments for the period 2020-2030 (as at September 2019, 184 countries had submitted their first NDC [UNFCCC, 2019b]. For adaptation, the developing country NDCs set out country plans for domestic climate actions, funded either through international or domestic finance. A recent review of the NDCs (UNEP, 2018) identified that about 50 non-Annex I countries19 have included costed estimates of adaptation financing needs. A recent study (Gallo, Victor and Levin, 2017) reports that many of these consider marine aspects, although much of this is associated with coastal protection, rather than fisheries.